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1 What it is,
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2 Fact or Fiction?, Presidents clothing, BULLET PATH
3 Gov. Connally's Wounds, Dr Michael Baden
4 Gov. Connally's Account of what happen
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PARKLAND HOSPITAL, Governor Connally CHEST WOUND Description:
Mr. SPECTER. When did you first have an opportunity then to examine Governor Connally's wound on the posterior aspect of his chest?
Dr. SHAW. After the Governor had been anesthetized. As soon as he was asleep so we could manipulate him--before that time it was necessary for an endotracheal tube to be in place so his respirations could be controlled before we felt we could roll him over and accurately examine the wound entrance. We knew this was the wound exit.
Mr. SPECTER. This [indicating an area below the right nipple on the body]?
Dr. SHAW. Yes.
Mr. DULLES. How did you know it was a wound exit.
Dr. SHAW. By the fact of its size, the ragged edges of the wound. This wound was covered by a dressing which could not be removed until the Governor was anesthetized.
Mr. SPECTER. Indicating this wound, the wound on the Governor's chest?
Dr. SHAW. Yes; the front part.
Mr. SPECTER. Will you describe in as much detail as you can the wound on the posterior side of the Governor's chest?
Dr. SHAW. This was a small wound approximately a centimeter and a half in its greatest diameter. It was roughly elliptical. It was just medial to the axilliary fold or the crease of the armpit, but we could tell that this wound, the depth of the wound, had not penetrated the shoulder blade.
Mr. SPECTER. What were the characteristics, if any, which indicated to you that it was a wound of entrance then?
Dr. SHAW. Its small size, and the rather clean cut edges of the wound as compared to the usual more ragged wound of exit.
Mr. SPECTER. What damage had been inflicted upon a rib, if any, Dr. Shaw?
Dr. SHAW. About 10 centimeters of the fifth rib starting at the, about the mid-axillary line and going to the anterior axillary line, as we describe it, or that would be the midline at the armpit going to the anterior lateral portion of the chest had been stripped away by the missile.
Mr. SPECTER. What effect, if any, would the striking of that rib have had to
the trajectory of the bullet?
Dr. SHAW. It could have had a slight, caused a slight deflection of the rib, but probably not a great deflection of the rib, because of the angle at which it struck and also because of the texture of the rib at this time.
Mr. SPECTER. You say deflection of the rib or deflection of the bullet?
Dr. SHAW. Deflection of the bullet, I am sorry.
Mr. SPECTER. Was any metallic substance from the bullet left in the thoracic cage as a result of the passage of the bullet through the Governor's body?
Dr. SHAW. No. We saw no evidence of any metallic material in the X-ray that we had of the chest, and we found none during the operation.
Mr. SPECTER. Dr. Shaw, would you, by use of the viewer, exhibit the
X-rays of the Governor's chest to show more graphically that which you have
Dr. SHAW. This is the first X-ray that was taken, which was taken in the operating room with the Governor on the operating table, and at this time anesthetized. The safety pin that you see here is used, was used, to secure the tube which had been put between the second and third rib in expanding the Governor's lung.
Mr. McCLOY. Were there any photographs taken as distinguished from X-rays of
Dr. SHAW. There were no photographs.
Dr. SHAW. Yes; it is a picture of the back side of the shirt. However, in
this particular picture I am not able to make out the hole in the shirt very
Now I see it, I believe; yes.
Mr. SPECTER. Will you describe the hole as you see it to exist in the shirt? Aside from what you see on the picture, what hole do you observe on the back of the shirt itself?
Dr. SHAW. On the back of the shirt itself there is a hole, a punched out area of the shirt which is a little more than a centimeter in its greater diameter. The whole shirt is soiled by brown stains which could have been due to blood.
Mr. SPECTER. How does the hole in the back of the shirt correspond with the wound on the Governor's back?
Dr. SHAW. It does correspond exactly.
Mr. SPECTER. Now turning the same shirt over to the front side, I ask you if the photograph, marked "Commission Exhibit No. 386," is a picture of the front side of this shirt?
Dr. SHAW. It is.
Mr. SPECTER. What does the picture of the shirt show with respect to a hole, if any, on the right side of the front of the shirt?
Dr. SHAW. The picture and the shirt show on the right side a much larger rent in the garment with the rent being approximately 4 centimeters in its largest diameter.
< HSCA >
------- Dr. Shaw on Governor Connally's Back Wound -------
In response to Dr. Petty's questions, Dr. Shaw provided the following:
1) The bullet entering the back did not strike dead on, hitting instead on a decline.
2) The entrance wound was olvode (see Dr. Shaw's drawing attached).
3) The shape of the entrance wound was consistent with a missile striking in a slightly downward trajectory. It is Dr. Shaw's opinion that the wound was not caused by a tumbling bullet (an inference drawn, explicitly, from his belief that a tumbling bullet would not have had sufficient force to cause the remainder of the Governor's wounds).
4) Dr. Shaw believes that the bullet which hit the Governor had not struck any other objects because of his conclusion that the bullet was not tumbling.
[PAGE 327 FOLLOWS] He does note that the entrance wound was longer along the vertical axis. (7 HSCA 326-327)
Regarding press accounts that he felt the metal fragment was too heavy to have come from C.E.399, Dr. Shaw said he is not qualified to speculate as to the actual size or weight of the fragment in the thigh or those in the wrist (even though he admittedly did so before the Warren Commission 4 H 113). He did say he has never been satisfied that the bullet found on Governor Connally's stretcher had caused all of the Governor's wounds.
Shaw believes the "...bullet found on the limousine floor was more likely the one which went through Connally." He believes the bullet that went through the President's neck may have gotten caught in the Governor's clothing and another bullet struck the Governor causing his wounds. (7 HSCA 328)
The wound in the back was shaped as if the bullet had entered at a slight declination. Shaw probed through this wound with his finger and felt the Penrose drain that he had placed in the latissimus dorsi muscle.
In measuring the diagram made by Doctor Shaw at the time of this interview so the better to illustrate the size of the entrance and exit wounds, it is interesting that the entrance wound measurement taken from this diagram are 1.5 x 0.8 cm. with the long dimension in the longitudinal plane of the body (the long axis of the body) and that the exit wound is approximately 5 cm. in greatest dimension. (7 HSCA 331)
< END. >
PARKLAND HOSPITAL, Governor Connally WRIST WOUND:
Mr. SPECTER. Who was in charge then of the subsequent care on the Governor's wrist?
Dr. SHAW. Dr. Charles Gregory who had been previously alerted and then came in to take care of the wrist.
Mr. SPECTER. Now, with respect to the wound on the wrist, did you have any opportunity to examine it by way of determining points of entry and exit?
Dr. SHAW. My examination of the wrist was a very cursory one. I could tell that there was a compound comminuted fracture because there was motion present, and there was a ragged wound just over the radius above the wrist joint. But that was the extent of my examination of the wrist.
DR. CHARLES FRANCIS GREGORY
beginning at 4H117...
Mr. SPECTER. And when did you first see Governor Connally then?
Dr. GREGORY. I first saw Governor Connally after Dr. Shaw had prepared him and draped him for the surgical procedures which he carried out on the Governor's chest.
Mr. SPECTER. Now, did you have any opportunity to observe the wound on the Governor's chest?
Dr. GREGORY. I could see the wounds on the Governor's chest, but I could see them only through the apertures available in the surgical drapes, and therefore I had difficulty orienting the exact positions of the wounds, except for the wound identified as the wound of exit which could be related to the nipple in the right chest which was exposed.
Mr. SPECTER. Now what did you observe with respect to the wound on the Governor's wrist?
Dr. GREGORY. I did not have an opportunity to examine the wound on the Governor's wrist until Dr. Shaw had completed his surgical treatment of the Governor's chest wound. At that time he was turned to his back and it was possible to examine both the right upper extremity and the left lower extremity for wounds of the wrist and left thigh respectively. The right wrist was the site of a perforating wound, which by assumption began on a dorsal lateral surface. In lay terms this is the back of the hand on the thumb side at a point approximately 5 centimeters above the wrist joint. There is a second wound presumed to be the wound of exit which lay in the midline of the wrist on its palmar surface about 2 centimeters, something less than 1 inch above the wrist crease, the most distal wrist crease.
Mr. SPECTER. You say that the, wound on the dorsal or back side of the wrist you assume to be the wound of entrance. What factors, if any, led you to that assumption?
Dr. GREGORY. I assumed it to be a wound of entrance because of the general ragged appearance of the wound, but for other reasons which I can delineate in a lighter description which came to light during the operative procedure and which are also hallmarked to a certain extent by the X-rays.
Mr. SPECTER. Would you proceed to tell us, even though it is out of sequence, what those factors, later. determined to be, were which led you to assume that it was the wound of entrance?
Dr. GREGORY. Yes. Assuming that the wrist wound, which included a shattering fracture of the wrist bone, of the radial bone just above the wrist, was produced by a missile there were found in the vicinity of the wound two things
which led me to believe that it passed from the. dorsal or back side to the volar. The first of these----
Mr. SPECTER. When you say volar what do you mean by that?
Dr. GREGORY. The palm side.
Mr. SPECTER. Proceed.
Dr. GREGORY. The first of these was evidence of clothing, bits of thread and cloth, apparently from a dark suit or something of that sort which had been carried into the wound, from the skin into the region of the bone.
The second of these were two or three small fragments of metal which presumably were shed by the missile after their encounter with the firm substance which is bone.
Mr. SPECTER. As to the bits of cloth which you describe, have you had an opportunity earlier today to examine a coat, heretofore identified and marked by a picture bearing Commission Exhibit No. 683, which we will have later testimony on as being Governor Connally's coat?
Dr. GREGORY. I have.
Mr. SPECTER. And what, if anything, did your examination disclose with respect to the wound of the right wrist?
Dr. GREGORY. Well, the right sleeve of the coat has a tear in it close to the margin at a point which is, I think, commensurate with the location of the dorsal surface, the back side of the wrist, forearm where the two may have been super imposed and both damaged by the same penetrating body.
Mr. SPECTER. Is the nature of the material of the suit coat the same as that which you found in the wound of the wrist?
Dr. GREGORY. It is. As a matter of fact, at the time that the wound was treated, and the cloth was found, the speculation was made as to the kind the color of the suit the Governor was wearing and moreover the thread was almost identifiable as mohair or raw silk or something of that nature and entirely consistent with this fabric.
Mr. SPECTER. Was the color, which you speculated about, the same as which you see in this Jacket?
Dr. GREGORY. Yes; it was my impression it was black or either dark blue.
Mr. SPECTER. You say there was something in the X-ray work which led you to further conclude that that was the wound of entrance?
Dr. GREGORY. Yes.
Mr. SPECTER. Will you proceed now to show the Commission those X-rays, please?
Dr. GREGORY. This is an X-ray made in the lateral view of the Governor's wrist at the time he was brought to the hospital prior to any surgical intervention.
view, Exhibit No. 691, and "B" stands for the lateral view, Exhibit No. 690, of the right wrist and forearm. "A" then demonstrates a comminuted fracture of the wrist with three fragments.
Mr. SPECTER. What do you mean by comminuted?
Dr. GREGORY. Comminuted refers to shattering, to break into more than two pieces, specifically many pieces, and if I may, I can point out there is a fragment here, a fragment here, a fragment here, a fragment here, and there are several smaller fragments lying in the center of these three larger ones.
Mr. SPECTER. How many fragments are there in total, sir, in your opinion?
Dr. GREGORY. I would judge from this view that counting each isolated fragment there are fully seven or eight, and experience has taught that when these things are dismantled directly under direct vision that there very obviously may be more than that.
Mr. SPECTER. Will you continue to describe what that X-ray shows with respect to metallic fragments, if any?
Dr. GREGORY. Three shadows are identified as representing metallic fragments. There are other light shadows in this film which are identified or interpreted as being artifacts.
Mr. SPECTER. What is the basis of distinction between that which is an artifact and that which is a real shadow of the metallic substance?
Dr. GREGORY. A real shadow of metallic substance persist and be seen in other views, other X-ray copies, whereas artifacts which are produced by irregularities either in the film or film carrier will vary from one X-ray to another.
Mr. SPECTER. Is it your view that these other X-ray films led you to believe that those are, in fact, metallic substances?
Dr. GREGORY. As a matter of fact, it is the mate to this very film, the lateral view marked "B", which shows the same three fragments in essentially the same relationship to the various levels of the forearm that leads me to believe that these do, in fact, represent metallic fragments.
Mr. SPECTER. Will you describe as specifically as you can what those metallic fragments are by way of size and shape, sir?
Dr. GREGORY. I would identify these fragments as varying from five-tenths of a millimeter in diameter to approximately 2 millimeters in diameter., and each fragment is no more than a half millimeter in thickness. They would represent in lay terms flakes, flakes of metal.
Mr. SPECTER. What would your estimate be as to their weight in total?
Dr. GREGORY. I would estimate that they would be weighed in micrograms which is very small amount of weight. I don't know how to reduce it to ordinary equivalents for you.
It is the kind of weighing that requires a microadjustable scale, which means that it is something less than the weight of a postage stamp.
Mr. SPECTER. Have you now described all the metallic substances which you observed either visually or through the X- rays in the Governor's wrist?
Dr. GREGORY. These are the three metallic substance items which I saw. Now if I may use these to indicate why I view the path as being from dorsal to volar, from the back of the wrist to the palm side, these have been shed on the volar side suggesting that contact with this bone resulted in there being flaked off, as the remainder of the missile emerged from the volar side leaving the small flakes behind.
PARKLAND HOSPITAL, Governor Connally THIGH WOUND:
Mr. SPECTER. Dr. Shaw, what wounds, if any, did the Governor sustain on his left thigh?
Dr. SHAW. He sustained a small puncture-type wound on the medial aspect of the left thigh.
Mr. SPECTER. Did you have an opportunity to examine that closely?
Dr. SHAW. No.
Mr. SPECTER. Did you have an opportunity to examine it sufficiently to ascertain its location on the left thigh?
Dr. SHAW. No; I didn't examine it that closely, except for its general location.
Mr. SPECTER. Where was it with respect to a general location then on the Governor's thigh?
Dr. SHAW. It is on the medial anterior aspect of the thigh.
Mr. DULLES. Nontechnically, what does it mean?
Dr. SHAW. Well, above, slightly above, between, in other words, the medial aspect would be the aspect toward the middle of the body, but as far as being how many centimeters or inches it is from the knee and the groin, I am not absolutely sure.
< Warren Commission.> Gov. Connally:
Mr. SPECTER. Let the record show the Governor has displayed the left thigh showing the scar caused by the entry of the missile in the left thigh.
Dr. Gregory, will you describe the locale of that?
Dr. GREGORY. Yes. This scar, excisional scar, is a better term, if I may just interject that----
Mr. SPECTER. Please do.
Dr. GREGORY. The excisional scar to the Governor's thigh is located at a point approximately 10 or 12 centimeters above the adductor tubercule of the femur, placing it at the Juncture of the middle and distal third of his thigh.
Mr. SPECTER. In lay language, Doctor, about how far is that up from the knee area?
Dr. GREGORY. Five inches, 6 inches.
Senator COOPER. I am just trying to remember whether we asked you, Doctor, if you probed the wound in the thigh to see how deep it was.
Dr. GREGORY. I did not, Senator. Dr. Tom Shires at our institution attended that wound, and I have his description to go on, what he found, what he had written, and his description is that it did not penetrate the thigh very deeply, just to the muscle, but not beyond that.
Representative BOGGS. Just one other question of the Doctor. Having looked at the wound, there is no doubt in either of your minds that that bullet came from the rear, is there?
Dr. GREGORY. There has never been any doubt in my mind about the origin of the missile; no.
Representative BOGGS. And in yours?
Dr. SHAW. No.
< END. >
|Governor Connally's Chest X-RAY||Governor Connally's Wrist X-RAY||Governor Connally'sThight X-RAY|
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